According to Texas Parks and Wildlife, the following fish have been caught in the bay: Striped Bass, Gafftopsail catfish, Atlantic croaker, Black drum, Red drum, Southern flounder, Barred grunt, Hake,Skipjack herring, Crevalle jack, Ladyfish, Gulf menhaden, Pigfish, Smooth puffer, Sand seatrout, Spotted seatrout, Blacktip shark, Gray snapper, Southern stingray, Gulf toadfish, Tripletail. The bay serves as a nursery for finfish, shrimp and crabs.
Matagorda Bay System – East and West Matagorda bays each have their unique traits. East Matagorda is a relatively small bay system, full of oyster beds and Texas-size speckled trout. West Matagorda Bay is a mix of deep holes and guts and shallow grassy flats along the shorelines which are popular among shallow water anglers looking for redfish.